The issue here is that each resource only appears once. IF you wanted to have a “year” group and then all the resources being used in that year showing under that group this would violate this rule as a resource used in two years would need to be shown twice which project can not do.
I have tried to find a way to filter the list however setting up a custom field with the formula year([start]) in the Gantt side doesn’t show up in the resource usage as this is concerned with the resource data and the new custom fields relates to the task side of things. Similarly setting up a custom field in the resource side only looks at the resource data and doesn’t display information on the task (i.e. start and finish dates). A split view doesn’t help (though this is normally an excellent way to see both types of data at the same time).
The only thing I can suggest is copying the data into Excel and filtering it there.